Mandarin Orange Tree and Tangerine Names (Citrus reticulata)

Picture of a Mandarin Orange Tree
Mandarin Orange Tree (Citrus reticulata)
Picture of a Mandarin Orange tree
(Citrus reticulata)

The Mandarin Orange Tree, Citrus reticulata species is primarily grown for its fruit production. This species of Citrus is also known as the "True Orange Tree", as there are many species of Citrus trees known as Orange Trees.

One of the most well known varieties of the Mandarin Orange Tree is the Tangerine tree group, comprised of many varieties known as Tangerines, and sometimes botanically referred to as (Citrus tangerina). In English the names "tangerine" and "mandarin" are used almost interchangeably for the same fruit tree, however historically the name "tangerine" refers to reddish orange colour mandarin tree fruits exported out of Tangiers in Morocco Africa to Europe and America in the late 1800’s.

Some of the most well known Mandarin orange tree Hybrids are for example the Sweet Orange Tree, and the Clementine Tree.

Facts about Mandarin Orange, (Citrus reticulata) species of trees for identification;
Mandarin Orange Tree Growth Habit

The flowers of Mandarin orange trees are borne singly, or a few together. The fruit peel is bright orange or reddish-orange when ripe, and separates easily from the segments beneath, compared to other Citrus Fruit Species. Mature Mandarin orange trees may reach a height of 7.5 m (25' ft) with a larger canopy spread when grown naturally. If grown in a fruit tree farm; the natural growth shape is typically altered for fruit harvesting purposes. Mandarin orange trees are naturally thorny, with broad or slender lancelet leaves, some having narrow winged petioles.

Mandarin Orange Cold Hardiness

Most Mandarin trees can grow successfully in the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 9a: to -6.6 °C (20 °F) and warmer.

Mandarin oranges are much more cold hardy than the sweet orange, and the tree is more drought tolerant.

List of Mandarin Tree (Citrus reticulata) Varieties and their Other Names

  • Tangerine group. (syn. Citrus tangerina) A group of Mandarin orange varieties known as Tangerines;
    • Bang Mot tangerine (Citrus reticulata 'Bang Mot')
    • Cleopatra mandarin, Tangerine 'Cleopatra', 'Ponki', or 'Spice' (Citrus reticulata 'Ponki', or 'Spice') syn; Citrus reshni
    • Kid-glove orange, Tangerine 'Dancy', zipper-skin tangerine (Citrus reticulata 'Dancy'). Discovered in the fruit grove of Col. G.L. Dancy at Buena Vista, Florida, USA. Cultivation began in 1871 or 1872. It is thought that this tree may have originated from China.
    • Tangerine 'Sunburst' (Citrus reticulata 'Sunburst'). Popular in Florida, USA.
  • Mandarin 'Changsa' (Citrus reticulata 'Changsa') Grown as an ornamental as the fruits are not favorable, however this tree has high cold resistance, it has survived -15º C (5º F).
  • Mandarin 'Emperor' (Citrus reticulata 'Emperor') Discovered in Australia, and became popular there as a commercial cultivar.
  • Mandarin 'Le-dar' (Citrus reticulata 'Le-dar') A climbing variety of Mandarin orange discovered in Queensland, Australia, about 1959.
  • Mandarin 'Oneco' (Citrus reticulata 'Oneco') From northwestern India, the tree grows large and vigorous, producing medium to large slightly pear-shaped fruit.
  • Mandarin 'Willow-leaf' or China Mandarin (Citrus reticulata 'Willow-leaf') The tree is small to medium, growing very slender, willowy branches, almost thorn-less, with slim lance leaves. Grown mainly as an ornamental or for breeding.
  • Pixie mandarin, Pixie tangerine, Nanfengmiju (Citrus reticulata). Synonym; Citrus depressa.
  • Satsuma group, or Emerald Tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. satsuma). Syn; Citrus unshiu. A group of Mandarin orange varieties known as Satsuma's;
    • Satsuma 'Owari' (Citrus reticulata var. satsuma 'Owari')
    • Satsuma 'Wase' (Citrus reticulata var. satsuma 'Wase') Discovered at several sites in Japan from before 1895.

List of Mandarin Tree (Citrus reticulata) Hybrids and their other names

  • Sweet Orange Tree (Citrus × sinensis). Comprised of ≈75% Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) × ≈25% Pumelo tree (Citrus maxima) This is the most grown Citrus tree in the world, for its fruits known as the "Orange".
  • Clementine, Thanksgiving Orange, Christmas orange, Algerian Tangerine (Citrus × clementina = Citrus reticulata × Citrus ×sinensis). The Clementine crossed with pollen of the 'Orlando' tangelo (Citrus × tangelo) produced the hybrid selections known as; 'Robinson', 'Osceola', and 'Lee', released in 1959.
  • Clemenules (Citrus × clementina 'Nules') A variety of a Clementine hybrid named for the Spanish town where it was first bred.
  • Tangor 'King', King orange, Cam sành, King Tangor, King Mandarin (Citrus reticulata × Citrus ×sinensis )
  • Satsuma 'Kara' (Citrus reticulata var. satsuma 'Kara') = Citrus reticulata var. satsuma 'Owari' × 'King' tangor)
  • Murcott, Honey Tangerine (Citrus reticulata × Citrus ×sinensis)
  • Ponkan, Chinese Honey Orange (Citrus × poonensis = Citrus reticulata × Citrus maxima)
  • Tangelo, honeybells (Citrus × tangelo = Citrus reticulata × Citrus maxima OR × Citrus paradisi). A Citrus tree hybrid of tangerine and pomelo OR grapefruit.

List of Other Citrus reticulata Vernacular Names

Boarisch: Mandariene
Deutsch: Mandarinen, Mandarinenbaum, Tangerine
Ελληνικά: Μανταρίνι
English: Mandarin orange, Tangerine, Swatow orange.
español: mandarina
français: mandarinier
italiano: mandarina
Nederlands: Sinaasappelboompje
日本語: マンダリンオレンジ
slovenščina: Mandarina
suomi: Mandariini
Türkçe: Mandalina
українська: Мандарин
हिन्दी: santara
polski: mandarynka
português: mandarina, bergamota, tangerina
svenska: småcitrus
中文: gan ju

List of Citrus reticulata Synonyms

Citrus × aurantium f. deliciosa
Citrus aurantium f. deliciosa
Citrus aurantium subsp. suntra
Citrus × aurantium var. tachibana
Citrus aurantium var. tachibana
Citrus chrysocarpa
Citrus crenatifolia
Citrus crenatifolia var. lycopersiciformis
Citrus daoxianensis
Citrus deliciosa
Citrus depressa
Citrus erythrosa
Citrus himekitsu
Citrus koozi
Citrus lycopersiciformis
Citrus madurensis var. deliciosa
Citrus mangshanensis
Citrus nippokoreana
Citrus × nobilis var. deliciosa
Citrus nobilis var. deliciosa
Citrus nobilis var. deliciosa
Citrus × nobilis var. koozi
Citrus nobilis var. major
Citrus × nobilis var. papillaris
Citrus × nobilis var. ponki
Citrus × nobilis var. poonensis
Citrus nobilis var. spontanea
Citrus × nobilis var. sunki
Citrus nobilis var. tachibana
Citrus × nobilis var. unshiu
Citrus nobilis var. vangasy
Citrus otachihana
Citrus papillaris
Citrus papillaris var. chrysocarpa
Citrus ponki
Citrus reticulata var. austera
Citrus reticulata var. chrysocarpa
Citrus reticulata subsp. deliciosa
Citrus reticulata subsp. tachibana
Citrus reticulata subsp. unshiu
Citrus succosa
Citrus suhuiensis
Citrus sunki
Citrus tachibana
Citrus tangerina
Citrus tankan
Citrus unshiu
Citrus vangasy

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