Prunus Genus Classification and Names of Prunus Subgenus

Picture of an Almond Tree
Picture of an Almond Tree (Prunus dulcis)
Picture of an Almond tree,
(Prunus dulcis)

The Prunus Genus is a large group of flowering, mostly deciduous tree species, known by many common names such as Almond Trees, Peach Trees, Nectarine Trees, Cherry Trees, Plum Trees, Apricot Trees, and collectively as the Stone Fruit Trees, see Prunus Vernacular Names.

Although the above mentioned trees may appear to be very different from one another, they are all classified in the genus "Prunus". Botanists have divided the Prunus genus into 4 Subgenera to make classification easier based upon species characteristics and recently their DNA resemblance with each other.

Facts about the Genus Prunus;
  • Genus Latin Scientific Name: Prunus
  • Genus Latin Name Pronunciation: PROO-nus
  • Genus Latin Name Meaning: Plum family, see Prunus Etymology
  • Number of Taxa (types) in the Genus Prunus = 829
The Prunus genus is classified into 4 subgenera based on leaf characters and seed.
  1. Prunus Subgenus Amygdalus; Almond Trees, Peach Trees, Nectarine Trees
  2. Prunus Subgenus Cerasus; Cherry Trees
  3. Prunus Subgenus Emplectocladus; Desert Almond
  4. Prunus Subgenus Prunus; Plum Trees and Apricot Trees

List of Prunus Species organized by taxonomic classification Tree.

Genus Prunus - The Stone Fruit Trees
  • Subgenus Amygdalus
    • Section Amygdalus
    • Section Persica
      • Prunus davidiana
        • Prunus davidiana var. davidiana
        • Prunus davidiana var. potaninii
      • Prunus ferganensis
      • Prunus kansuensis
      • Prunus mira
      • Prunus mongolica
      • Prunus persica - Peach, Nectarine, Peacherine (syn. Amygdalus persica)
        • Prunus persica var. nucipersica - Nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina)
        • Prunus persica var. platycarpa - Saturn Peach, Doughnut (Donut) Peach, Paraguayo peach, Pan tao peach, Saucer peach, Belly-up peach, UFO peach, Flat peach, Pita peach, Hat peach, Custard peach, Squashed peach
      • Prunus tangutica
  • Subgenus; Cerasus
    • Section; Cerasus - Cherry Trees;
      • Prunus alaica -
      • Prunus apetala - Clove cherry
      • Prunus avium - Sweet cherry, Wild cherry, Mazzard, Gean
      • Prunus campanulata - Taiwan cherry, Formosan cherry, Bell-flowered cherry
      • Prunus canescens - Grey-leaf cherry
      • Prunus cerasoides - Wild Himalayan Cherry
      • Prunus cerasus - Sour Cherry
      • Prunus clarofolia - (Chinese; 微毛野樱桃 )
      • Prunus concinna -
      • Prunus conradinae - (Chinese; 康拉樱 )
      • Prunus cyclamina - Cyclamen cherry, Chinese flowering cherry
      • Prunus dawyckensis - Dawyck cherry
      • Prunus dielsiana - Tailed-leaf cherry
      • Prunus emarginata - Oregon cherry, Bitter cherry
      • Prunus fruticosa - European dwarf cherry, Dwarf cherry, Mongolian cherry, Steppe cherry
      • Prunus glandulifolia -
      • Prunus gondouinii - Duke cherry
      • Prunus himalaica -
      • Prunus incisa - Fuji cherry
      • Prunus jamasakura - Japanese mountain cherry, Japanese hill cherry, Yama-zakura
      • Prunus leveilleana -
      • Prunus maackii - Amur cherry, Manchurian cherry, cerisier de Mandchourie, Amur-Traubenkirsche, näverhägg
      • Prunus mahaleb - Saint Lucie cherry, Rock cherry, Perfumed cherry, Mahaleb cherry
      • Prunus maximowiczii - Miyama cherry, Korean cherry
      • Prunus nipponica - Takane cherry, Peak cherry, Japanese alpine cherry
      • Prunus pensylvanica - Pin cherry, Fire cherry, Wild red cherry
      • Prunus pleiocerasus - (Chinese; 雕核樱桃 )
      • Prunus pleuradenia - Antilles cherry
      • Prunus pojarkovii -
      • Prunus pseudocerasus - Chinese sour cherry, False cherry
      • Prunus rufa - Himalayan cherry
      • Prunus sargentii - Sargent's cherry
      • Prunus serrula - Paperbark cherry, Birch bark cherry, Tibetan cherry
      • Prunus serrulata - Japanese cherry, Hill cherry, Oriental cherry, East Asian cherry
      • Prunus setulosa - (Chinese; 刺毛山樱花 )
      • Prunus speciosa - Oshima cherry
      • Prunus stipulacea - (Chinese; 托叶樱 / 托叶樱桃)
      • Prunus takasagomontana -
      • Prunus takesimensis - Takeshima flowering cherry
      • Prunus tatsienensis - (Chinese; 康定樱桃 )
      • Prunus trichostoma - Ribbed cherry
      • Prunus verecunda - Korean mountain cherry
    • Section; Laurocerasus - Cherry-laurels and Bird Cherries;
      • Prunus africana - Red stinkwood
      • Prunus brachypoda - (Chinese; 短柄稠李)
      • Prunus bracteopadus -
      • Prunus buergeriana - Japanese bird cherry, Lin mu, Inuzakura, (Chinese; 橉木 )
      • Prunus caroliniana - Carolina cherry, Carolina cherry laurel, Carolina Laurelcherrry, Cherry laurel, Wild Mock Orange
      • Prunus ceylanica - (Malayalam; Korandamaram), (Tamil; Muttainari Kongu)
      • Prunus cornuta - Himalayan bird cherry, Jamana, Tsrain, Zamber
      • Prunus grayana - Gray's bird cherry, Uwa-mizu-zakura, Japanese bird cherry, (Türkçe: Japon kuş kirazı)
      • Prunus grisea - (Papua New Guinea; (Togoba) Iuimp)
      • Prunus guanaiensis -
      • Prunus ilicifolia - Hollyleaf cherry, Evergreen cherry, Holly-leaved cherry, Islay
      • Prunus incana - Willow cherry, (German; graue Kirschmandel), (French; Prunier prostré, Cerisier prostré)
      • Prunus jenkinsii - (Hindi; bonthereju), (Chinese; 阿萨姆稠李, (Transcribed Chinese; jian he gui ying))
      • Prunus laurocerasus - Cherry Laurel, Common laurel, English laurel, (Dansk: Laurbær-Kirsebær) (Deutsch: Lorbeerkirsche, Kirschlorbeerbaum, Kirschlorbeer), (Français: Laurier-cerise), (Portuguese; louro-cereja, loureiro-cerejeira), (Spanish; Lauroceraso, laurel cerezo), (中文: 桂樱 )
      • Prunus lusitanica - Portugal laurel, (Português: Azereiro, Gingeira-brava, Loureiro-de-Portugal)
      • Prunus lyonii - Hollyleaf cherry, Catalina Cherry, Catalina Island cherry
      • Prunus myrtifolia - West Indian cherry, Myrtle Laurel Cherry, West Indies cherry, (Brazilian Portuguese; coração de negro, pessegueiro bravo), (French; Bois noyo)
      • Prunus napaulensis (syn. Prunus nepaulensis) - Khasia cherry, Nepal bird cherry
      • Prunus obtusata - (Chinese; 细齿稠李 )
      • Prunus occidentalis - Western cherry laurel, almendrón, almendrillo
      • Prunus padus - Bird cherry, European bird cherry
        • Prunus padus var. asiatica -
        • Prunus padus var. commutata - Asian bird cherry, Eastern Asia
        • Prunus padus var. glauca -
        • Prunus padus var. laxa -
        • Prunus padus var. padus - European bird cherry, Europe and western Asia
        • Prunus padus var. petraea -
        • Prunus padus var. pubescens -
        • Prunus padus var. seoulensis -
      • Prunus phaeosticta - (Chinese; 腺叶野樱 (Transcribed Chinese; xian ye gui ying) )
      • Prunus pygeoides - (Chinese; 云南桂樱 )
      • Prunus serotina - Black cherry, Rum cherry, Wild Black Cherry, Black chokecherry, (French; Cerisier tardif, Cerisier noir, Cerisier d'automne), (Spanish; Cerezo), (German; Spät-Traubenkirsche, Herbstkirsche), (Italian; pruno tardivo), (French Canada; Merisier)
        • Prunus serotina var. alabamensis -
        • Prunus serotina var. rufula - Black cherry, Southwestern chokecherry
        • Prunus serotina var. salicifolia (syn. Prunus salicifolia) - Singapore cherry, Tropic cherry, Capulin Cherry, Capulin black cherry, (French; capulin), (Spanish; capulí)
        • Prunus serotina var. virens - Black Cherry
      • Prunus spinulosa - (Japanese Romaji; rinboku), (Chinese; 刺叶稠李 )
      • Prunus ssiori - Hokkaido bird cherry, (Hokkaidō), (Japanese; shuri-zakura), (Chinese; 库页稠李 (Transcribed Chinese; ku ye chou li))
      • Prunus turneriana - Almondbark, Wild almond
      • Prunus undulata - (Transcribed Chinese; jian ye gui ying)
      • Prunus virginiana - Chokecherry, Choke cherry, Bitter-berry, Virginia bird cherry, (French; Cerisier de Virginie), (Deutsch; Virginische Traubenkirsche)
      • Prunus wilsonii - (Chinese; 绢毛稠李 (Transcribed Chinese; juan mao chou li))
      • Prunus zippeliana - (Chinese; 大叶稠李 (Transcribed Chinese; da ye gui ying)), (Japanese Rōmaji; bakuchi-no-ki)
  • Subgenus Emplectocladus
  • Subgenus Prunus - Plum Trees and Apricot Trees
    • Section Armeniaca - Apricot Trees;
      • Prunus armeniaca - Apricot
      • Prunus brigantina - Briançon apricot, Marmot plum, Alpine apricot
      • Prunus mandshurica - Manchurian apricot, Scout apricot
      • Prunus mume - Chinese plum, Japanese apricot
      • Prunus sibirica - Siberian apricot, (Chinese: 山杏; pinyin: shān xìng)
    • Section Microcerasus - Plum-cherry Trees
      • Prunus bifrons - (French; Prunier prostré, Cerisier prostré)
      • Prunus cistena - Purple-leaf sand cherry, Dwarf red-leaf plum, (German; rote Sandkirsche), (Swedish; svartplommon)
      • Prunus dictyoneura - (Chinese; 显脉欧李 )
      • Prunus glandulosa - Chinese bush cherry, Dwarf flowering almond, (French; amandier à fleurs du Japon), (German; Drüsenkirsche)
      • Prunus humilis - Humble bush cherry, Chinese plum-cherry
      • Prunus jacquemontii - Flowering almond
      • Prunus japonica - Japanese bush cherry, Japanese cherry, Korean cherry, 日本語: ニワウメ
      • Prunus microcarpa -
      • Prunus prostrata - Mountain cherry, Prostrate cherry, Rock cherry, Spreading cherry, (German; niedrige Kirschmandel), (Türkçe: Dağ kirazı)
      • Prunus tomentosa - Nanking cherry, Manchu cherry, Downy cherry, Shanghai cherry, Ando cherry, Mountain cherry, Chinese dwarf cherry, Chinese bush cherry, (français: Ragouminier)
    • Section Penarmeniaca -
      • Prunus andersonii - Desert Peach
      • Prunus fremontii - Desert apricot
      • Prunus pumila - Sand cherry, Dwarf cherry, (French Canada; cerisier des sables), (Deutsch: Sand-Kirsche)
    • Section Prunocerasus - (meaning prune-cherry), or New World Plum Trees;
      • Prunus alleghaniensis - Allegheny plum, Flatwoods plum, Hog plum, Sloe plum
      • Prunus americana - American plum, American red plum, Goose plum, (Spanish; ciruelo americano), (French; prunier américain)
      • Prunus angustifolia - Chickasaw plum, Cherokee plum, Mountain cherry, Florida sand plum, Sand plum, Sandhill plum
      • Prunus geniculata - Scrub plum, Maiden pink
      • Prunus gracilis - Oklahoma plum, Sand plum
      • Prunus hortulana - Hortulan plum, Wild goose plum
      • Prunus maritima - Beach plum, Shore plum
      • Prunus mexicana - Mexican plum
      • Prunus munsoniana - Wild goose plum, Wildgrove plum, Creek plum, Hog plum
      • Prunus murrayana - Murray's plum, Murray plum
      • Prunus nigra - Black plum, Canada plum
      • Prunus rivularis - (Possibly a Synonym of Prunus munsoniana)
      • Prunus subcordata - Sierra plum, Oregon plum, Klamath plum, Pacific plum, Western plum
      • Prunus umbellata - (Possibly a Synonym of Prunus alleghaniensis)
    • Section Prunus - Old World Plum Trees;
      • Prunus bokhariensis -
      • Prunus cerasifera - Cherry plum, Myrobalan plum, (français: Prunier myrobalan)
      • Prunus cocomilia - Italian plum
      • Prunus consociiflora -
      • Prunus domestica - Plum Trees and Prunes (français: Prunier), (Deutsch: Pflaume)
        • Prunus domestica ssp. domestica - Common plums, Zwetschge (including ssp. oeconomica)
        • Prunus domestica ssp. insititia - Damson plum, Bullace, Krieche, Kroosjes, Perdrigon and other European varieties
        • Prunus domestica ssp. intermedia - Egg plum, Victoria plum
        • Prunus domestica ssp. italica - Gage, Gage plum, (German; Edelpflaume)
          • Prunus domestica ssp. italica var. claudiana - Greengage plum, Greengage, Reine claude (German; Reineclaude)
          • Prunus domestica ssp. italica var. subrotunda - Round plum, (German; Rundpflaume, Edelrundpflaume)
        • Prunus domestica ssp. pomariorum - Spilling
        • Prunus domestica ssp. prisca - Zibarte
        • Prunus domestica ssp. syriaca - Mirabelle plums
      • Prunus fruticans - (français: Prunellier à gros fruits), (Deutsch: Haferschlehe)
      • Prunus ramburii - Espino negro, Endrino de sierra nevada
      • Prunus salicina - Japanese plum, Chinese plum, Willow-leaf cherry, (Deutsch: Chinesische Pflaume)
      • Prunus simonii - Apricot plum, Simon plum, (French; prunier abricotier, prunier Kelsey), (German; Simons Pflaume, Simons Pflaumenbaum)
      • Prunus spinosa - Blackthorn, Sloe, (Some Grafted Trees Known as Husband and wife trees), (Deutsch: Schlehdorn), (français: Prunelier), (español: Endrina)
      • Prunus ursina - Bear's plum, خوخ الدب
      • Prunus ussuriensis - (Japanese; mansyû-sumomo), (Russian; слива уссурийская)
      • Prunus vachuschtii - Alycha plum (Georgian; alucha)

Prunus Etymology

Prunus, from the Latin "prunus" which is a loan name from Greek (προῦνον, prounon) which means plum tree.

Prunus Vernacular Names

  • العربية: خوخ (جنس)
  • azərbaycanca: Gavalı
  • башҡортса: Сейә
  • беларуская: Сліва
  • беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сьліва
  • български: Слива (род)
  • čeština: Slivoň
  • dansk: Kirsebær
  • Ελληνικά: Αμυγδαλιά
  • Esperanto: Prunuso
  • eesti: Toompuu
  • فارسی: پرونوس
  • Nordfriisk: Stianfrüchtbuumer
  • galego: Ameixa (froito)
  • עברית: פרונוס
  • Հայերեն: Սալորենի
  • 日本語: サクラ属
  • ქართული: კურკოვანი კულტურები
  • қазақша: Алхоры
  • 한국어: 벚나무속
  • Kurdî: Dembûl
  • lietuvių: Slyva (gentis)
  • македонски: Слива (род)
  • Nedersaksies: Breunishout
  • norsk bokmål: Kirsebærslekten
  • polski: Śliwa
  • русский: Слива
  • svenska: Plommonsläktet
  • Kiswahili: Mplamu
  • ไทย: สกุลพรุน
  • українська: Слива (рід)
  • Tiếng Việt: Chi Mận mơ
  • 中文: 李属
  • 中文(简体)‎: 李属
  • 中文(繁體)‎: 李屬
  • 中文(台灣)‎: 李屬

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