Ash Tree Names and Types of Fraxinus Species

Picture of a Ash Tree
White Ash Tree (Fraxinus americana)
Picture of a White Ash Tree
(Fraxinus americana)
White Ash Tree Leafs (Fraxinus americana)
Picture of White Ash tree leaves
(Fraxinus americana)

Ash Trees, known botanically as the Fraxinus Genus, consist of about 65 species of medium to large trees. They are deciduous, however a few subtropical species are evergreen. Some species can grow as shrubs. Ash trees are all dioecious species (each individual plant is either male or female in sexuality). The seeds from Ash trees are commonly known as keys or helicopter seeds in English. The seeds are inside a one seeded winged fruit, known botanically as a samara.

Ash Tree Name Definitions;
Ash Tree;
Common English name for species of the Fraxinus Genus. "Ash", originally from the old English name "æsc", for "Ash-tree". Some tree common names containing "Ash" do not refer to this genus, see Other Ash Tree Name Uses.
Fraxinus;
Botanical name given to a genus of plant species commonly known as Ash. The botanical Latin name "Fraxinus" originates from the meaning of "spear", as these were normally made from Ash wood.
Ash Tree Native Distribution;

In Europe three species are native; the Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), the Manna ash (Fraxinus ornus) and the Narrow-leafed ash (Fraxinus angustifolia). In North America, there are about twenty-two native species of Ash tree. In Asia, there are about twenty-six native species. These numbers are not so clear cut however, as ranges overlap, Southwest Asian Species are found in far Eastern Europe for example.

Facts about Ash Trees of the Fraxinus Genus
  • Genus Latin Scientific Name = Fraxinus. (Synonym; Apilia)
  • Genus Latin Name Pronunciation: FRAK-si-nus
  • Genus Latin Name Meaning: The ancient Latin name for "Spear" (Made from Ash wood)
  • Genus Common Names = Ash. List of other Ash Tree (Fraxinus) Vernacular Names
  • Number of Taxa (types) in the Fraxinus Genus ≈ 65

A Frênaie, Franee or fraxinaie is a forest dominated by Ash tree species. Ash trees are grown commercially for their wood, or raised for ornamental, landscaping use. See Ash Tree Uses.

See Names of Ash tree Hybrids, and Names of Ash Tree Cultivars, as they are not included in the Ash species table below.

List of Ash Trees, Fraxinus Genus - All known species, taxa types, organized by scientific Latin botanical name first and common names second
List of Ash Tree Names
Botanical Tree NameCommon Tree Name
Fraxinus americana White Ash, Autumn Purple Ash, Biltmore Ash or Biltmore White Ash, Cane Ash. (German; Weiß-Esche) (Swedish; Vitask)
Fraxinus angustifolia Narrow-leafed Ash, (German; Schmalblättrige Esche), (Swedish; Smalbladig Ask)
Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Desert Ash in Australia
Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa Caucasian Ash
Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. persica ¡ ?
Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. syriaca German; Syrische Esche
Fraxinus anomala Singleleaf Ash, Dwarf Ash, Utah Ash, (German; Einblättrige Esche)
Fraxinus anomala var. anomala Singleleaf Ash
Fraxinus anomala var. lowellii Lowell Ash
Fraxinus apertisquamifera Miyama-aodamo, Miyama tamo (Japanese Romaji) ミヤマアオダモ
Fraxinus baroniana XiáYèChén (Mandarin Chinese) 狭叶梣
PiZhenYèBáiLàShù (Chinese) 披针叶白蜡树
Fraxinus berlandieriana Berlandier Ash, Mexican Ash, (Spanish; Fresno)
Fraxinus bornmuelleri ¡ ?
Fraxinus bungeana Bunge's Ash, Northern Ash,
Chén (Chinese) 梣
XiaoYèChén (Mandarin Chinese) 小叶梣
XiaoYèBáiLàShù (Chinese) 小叶白蜡树
Fraxinus caroliniana Carolina Ash, Florida Ash, Pop Ash, Swamp Ash, Water Ash
Fraxinus chiisanensis ¡ ?
Fraxinus chinensis Chinese Ash, Korean Ash
Fraxinus chinensis ssp. chinensis Chinese Ash
Fraxinus chinensis ssp. rhynchophylla Beakleaf Chinese Ash, (Japanese Romaji; Toneriko), (German; Schnabel-Esche)
Fraxinus cuspidata Fragrant Ash, Flowering Ash
Fraxinus depauperata ShuHuaChén (Mandarin Chinese) 疏花梣
Fraxinus dimorpha ¡ ?
Fraxinus dipetala California Ash, Two-petal Ash
Fraxinus dubia (Spanish; Escobillo, Fresno)
Fraxinus excelsior European Ash, Common Ash, Black Ash, (French; Frêne Commun), (German; Gewöhnliche Esche), (Swedish; Ask)
Fraxinus excelsior ssp. coriariifolia ¡ ?
Fraxinus excelsior ssp. excelsior ¡ ?
Fraxinus ferruginea XiùMáoChén (Mandarin Chinese) 锈毛梣
XiùMáoBáiLàShù (Chinese) 锈毛白蜡树
Fraxinus floribunda Himalayan Manna Ash,
DuoHuaChén (Mandarin Chinese) 多花梣
DuoHuaBáiLàShù (Chinese) 多花白蜡树
Fraxinus gooddingii Goodding's Ash
Fraxinus greggii Gregg's Ash
Fraxinus griffithii Griffith's Ash, Formosan Ash, Philippine Ash, Emerald Wave Griffith Ash
Fraxinus holotricha (German; Behaarte Esche)
Fraxinus hookeri ¡ ?
Fraxinus hubeiensis
(Synonym; Fraxinus hupehensis)
HúBeiChén (Mandarin Chinese) 湖北梣
DuìJiéBáiLà (Chinese) 对节白蜡
Fraxinus insularis KuLìMù (Mandarin Chinese) 苦枥木
ShíShengKuLìMù (Chinese) 石生苦枥木
Fraxinus japonica Japanese Ash
Fraxinus lanuginosa (German; Wollflaumige Esche)
Fraxinus latifolia Oregon Ash, (German; Oregon-Esche)
Fraxinus longicuspis Japanese Ash, (German; Langspitzige Esche)
Fraxinus lowellii Lowell Ash
Fraxinus malacophylla BáiQiangGan (Mandarin Chinese) 白枪杆
Fraxinus mandshurica Manchurian Ash, Japanese Ash, (German; Mandschurische Esche), (Swedish; manchurisk ask), (Japanese Romaji; yachidamo)
Fraxinus mariesii Maries' Ash
Fraxinus micrantha ¡ ?
Fraxinus nigra Black Ash, Swamp Ash, Water Ash, (German; Schwarz-Esche), (Swedish; Svartask)
Fraxinus obovata DaoLuanYèChén (Mandarin Chinese) 倒卵叶梣
Fraxinus odontocalyx JianÈChén (Mandarin Chinese) 尖萼梣
HuángShanChén (Chinese) 黄山梣
Fraxinus ornus Flowering Ash, Manna Ash, (French; frêne à fleurs, frêne à manne, orne à manne), (German; Blumen-Esche, Manna-Esche), (Spanish; fresno de flor, maná de Calabria), (Swedish; manna-ask)
Fraxinus ornus ssp. cilicica ¡ ?
Fraxinus ornus ssp. ornus ¡ ?
Fraxinus pallisae Pallis' Ash
Fraxinus papillosa Chihuahua Ash, Chihuahuan Ash
Fraxinus parryi ¡ ?
Fraxinus paxiana QínLingChén (Mandarin Chinese) 秦岭梣
QínLingBáiLàShù (Chinese) 秦岭白蜡树
(German; Chinesische Blumen-Esche)
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Green Ash, Downy Ash, Red Ash, (German; Pennsylvanische Esche), (Swedish; Rödask)
Fraxinus platypoda XiàngLàShù (Mandarin Chinese) 象蜡树
DùnChìXiàngLàShù (Chinese) 钝翅象蜡树
KuanGuoChén (Chinese) 宽果梣
Fraxinus potosina ¡ ?
Fraxinus pringlei ¡ ?
Fraxinus profunda Pumpkin Ash
Fraxinus punctata BanYèChén (Mandarin Chinese) 斑叶梣
Fraxinus purpusii ¡ ?
Fraxinus purpusii var. purpusii  
Fraxinus purpusii var. vellerea (Spanish; Frijolillo, Timbogue)
Fraxinus quadrangulata Blue Ash, (German; Blau-Esche)
Fraxinus raibocarpa ¡ ?
Fraxinus reflexiflora ¡ ?
Fraxinus retusifoliolata KaiYèChén (Mandarin Chinese) 楷叶梣
HuángLiánYèBáiLàShù (Chinese) 黄连叶白蜡树
Fraxinus rufescens (Spanish; palo blanco, palo lacio)
Fraxinus sieboldiana Japanese Flowering Ash, Chinese flowering Ash, Siebold Ash, (German; Siebolds Esche), (Japanese Romaji; maruba-aodamo)
Fraxinus sikkimensis XiJinChén (Mandarin Chinese) 锡金梣
XiangBáiLàShù (Chinese) 香白蜡树
XiJinBáiLàShù (Chinese) 锡金白蜡树
Fraxinus sogdiana TianShanChén (Mandarin Chinese) 天山梣
Fraxinus spaethiana Späth's Ash
Fraxinus stylosa SùZhùChén (Mandarin Chinese) 宿柱梣
HùXiànBáiLàShù (Chinese) 户县白蜡树
SùZhùBáiLàShù (Chinese) 宿柱白蜡树
Fraxinus suaveolens ¡ ?
Fraxinus syriaca ¡ ?
Fraxinus texensis Texas Ash
Fraxinus trifoliolata ¡ ?
Fraxinus uhdei Shamel Ash, Tropical Ash, Mexican Ash, (Spanish; Fresno)
Fraxinus velutina Velvet Ash, Arizona Ash, desert Ash, (German; Arizona-Esche), (Spanish; Fresno)
Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Afghan Ash,
JiaoYèChén (Mandarin Chinese) 椒叶梣
JiaoYèBáiLàShù (Chinese) 椒叶白蜡树
(German; Afghanische Esche)

List of Tree Names last up-dated on

Ash Tree Uses

Picture of Ash Wood and Bark
European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) Wood
A picture of European Ash,
(Fraxinus excelsior)
Trunk cross-section showing wood
European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) Bark
A picture of European Ash
(Fraxinus excelsior),
showing bark on a trunk cross-section

The Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) is widely planted as a street tree in the United States. This Green Ash and its many Cultivars are also widely used for landscaping trees, as they are easy to grow and maintain, and less susceptible to diseases than alternative similar trees. The Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Patmore' Green Ash is a Cultivar that is available at tree nurseries and garden centers throughout the United States.

Ash is a hardwood and has a hardness of (within 20% of 670 kg/m³ for Fraxinus americana, and higher at 710 kg/m³ for Fraxinus excelsior). Ash wood is tough and very strong but flexible, thus it is used extensively for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats, snooker cues and other uses demanding high strength and resilience from a wood material.

Ash wood is used in interior design and furniture manufacturing. The two most economically important species for wood production are White Ash in eastern North America, and European Ash in Europe.

Ash is used as sound wood for musical instruments, such as solid-body guitars, electric guitars and electric bass guitars. The Black Ash or Swamp ash (Fraxinus nigra) has been used specifically for this purpose.

Ash wood makes excellent firewood and is also used for barbecue or smoking wood.

The inner bark of the Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) has been used as a source for a blue dye.

During dry summers, farmers prune ash leaves to feed cows in order to augment the lack of lush green grass forage. Ash leaves can be digested adequately and are appreciated by all ruminant animals. Ash leaves can also be kept for winter forage.


Ash (Fraxinus) Tree Hybrid Names

  • Fraxinus ×borzae
  • Fraxinus ×cataubiensis
  • Fraxinus ×hybrida
  • Fraxinus ×josephii
  • Fraxinus ×rehderiana

Ash (Fraxinus) Tree Cultivar Names

  • Fraxinus americana 'Empire' (Empire White Ash)
  • Fraxinus americana 'Greenspire' (Greenspire White Ash)
  • Fraxinus americana 'Junginger' (Autumn Purple White Ash)
  • Fraxinus americana 'Rosehill' (Rosehill White Ash)
  • Fraxinus americana 'Skycole' (Skyline White Ash)
  • Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. angustifolia 'Pendula Vera' (True Weeping Narrow-leafed Ash)
  • Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa 'Raywood' (Raywood Ash, Claret Ash)
  • Fraxinus excelsior 'Aurea' (Golden Ash)
  • Fraxinus excelsior 'Aureafolia' (European Ash)
  • Fraxinus excelsior 'Aurea Pendula' (Weeping Golden Ash)
  • Fraxinus excelsior 'Pendula' (Weeping European Ash)
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Aerial' (Aerial Green Ash)
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Cimmaron' (Green Ash)
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Marshall's Seedless' (Marshall's Seedless Ash)
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Patmore' (Green Ash)
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Summit' (Summit Ash)

Ash (Fraxinus) Genus Vernacular Names

English: Ash tree
Afrikaans: Essebome
Asturianu: Fresnu
Česky: Jasan
中文: 白蜡树 , 梣树
Cymraeg: Onnen
Dansk: Ask
Deutsch: Eschen
Eesti: Saar
Español: Fresno
Esperanto: Frakseno
Français: Frêne élevé
हिंदी भाषा: एश पेड़
Italiano: Frassino
한국어: 물푸레나무속
Македонски: Јасен
日本語: トネリコ属
Norsk (bokmål)‎: Askeslekten, Ask
Polski: Jesion
Русский: Ясень
Slovenščina: Jesen
Suomi: Saarnet
Türkçe: Dişbudak
українська: Ясен
Other "Ash Tree" name uses, that do not represent this Genus of Ash (Fraxinus) Tree species
  • In North America, the name "Mountain Ash" is applied to species of the Sorbus Genus, or more widely known as Rowans and Whitebeams.
  • The name "Prickly Ash" is applied to the Zanthoxylum Genus, especialy the Zanthoxylum americanum species.
  • Many Eucalyptus species contain "Ash" in their common names, especialy in Australian Eucalyptus names. "Mountain Ash" (Eucalyptus regans), is a good example. These trees do produce a hard, fine grained wood, just like any true Ash (Fraxinus) tree.

References;
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
    Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
    URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?4752 (18 February 2013)
  • The International Plant Names Index (2012). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org (accessed 2013-02-18)